Effects of Exercise on the Resting Heart Rate: A Systematic

All types of sports all
c =215, NIG = 6763, NCG = 6189 SMD = −0.29
(95%-CI: −0.35–−0.24, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.35–−0.24, p < 0.001) Q = 381.06, p < 0.001, I2 = 43.8% 72.4 (0.5) 68.7 (0.5)
−5.2 (0.4)% 72.3 (0.6) 71.9 (0.6)
−0.5 (0.2)% −0.36
(95%-CI: −0.47–−0.24, p < 0.001) females only
c = 65, NIG = 1366, NCG = 1268 SMD = −0.35
(95%-CI: −0.43–−0.26, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.43–−0.26, p < 0.001) Q = 67.17, p = 0.305, I2 = 7.7% 73.2 (0.8) 69.5 (0.9)
−5.1 (0.6)% 73.2 (1.0) 72.9 (0.9)
−0.3 (0.2)% −0.32
(95%-CI: −0.52–−0.08, p = 0.009) males only
c = 58, NIG = 1208, NCG = 1036 SMD = −0.40
(95%-CI: −0.51–−0.29, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.52–−0.28, p < 0.001) Q = 79.35, p = 0.018, I2 = 30.7% 70.3 (1.2) 65.4 (1.1)
−7.0 (0.6)% 70.5 (1.6) 69.9 (1.6)
−0.6 (0.4)% −0.22
(95%-CI: −0.46–0.04, p = 0.094) females and males
c = 92, NIG = 4189, NCG = 3885 SMD = −0.21
(95%-CI: −0.29–−0.13, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.30–−0.12, p < 0.001) Q = 185.24, p < 0.001, I2 = 50.3% 73.1 (0.7) 70.0 (0.7)
−4.3 (0.6)% 72.7 (0.9) 72.3 (0.9)
−0.6 (0.4)% −0.49
(95%-CI: −0.63–−0.32, p < 0.001) Endurance training all
c = 121, NIG = 2924, NCG = 2533 SMD = −0.33
(95%-CI: −0.40–−0.26, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.40–−0.26, p < 0.001) Q = 157.16, p = 0.013, I2 = 23.6% 72.4 (0.6) 68.0 (0.7)
−6.0 (0.4)% 72.3 (0.8) 71.9 (0.8)
−0.1 (0.3)% −0.19
(95%-CI: −0.36–−0.01, p = 0.042) females only
c = 35,
NIG = 698, NCG = 620 SMD = −0.38
(95%-CI: −0.49–−0.26, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.50–−0.26, p < 0.001) Q = 37.06, p = 0.330, I2 = 8.3% 73.6 (1.2) 69.8 (1.1)
−5.2 (0.6)% 73.4 (1.5) 73.3 (1.3)
−0.2 (0.4)% −0.26
(95%-CI: −0.55–0.08, p = 0.132) males only
c = 36, NIG = 792, NCG = 656 SMD = −0.49
(95%-CI: −0.63–−0.35, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.64–−0.34, p < 0.001) Q = 45.18, p = 0.077, I2 = 27.0% 70.3 (1.6) 64.0 (1.6)
−9.0 (0.7)% 70.8 (2.1) 70.3 (2.2)
0.0 (0.6)% −0.18
(95%-CI: −0.49–0.17, p = 0.320) females and males
c = 50, NIG = 1434, NCG = 1277 SMD = −0.19
(95%-CI: −0.28–−0.11, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.28–−0.10, p < 0.001) Q = 53.85, p = 0.294, I2 = 9.0% 72.8 (0.7) 69.4 (0.8)
−4.6 (0.7) % 72.4 (0.8) 71.9 (0.9)
−0.0 (0.5)% −0.33
(95%-CI: −0.56–−0.05, p = 0.022) Strength training all
c = 43, NIG = 720, NCG = 689 SMD = −0.18
(95%-CI: −0.32–−0.04, p = 0.011)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.32–−0.04, p = 0.014) Q = 64.98, p = 0.013, I2 = 35.4% 69.1 (1.2) 67.8 (1.2)
−2.5 (0.7)% 68.9 (1.3) 69.0 (1.4)
0.1 (0.8)% −0.04
(95%-CI: −0.34–0.27, p = 0.817) females only
c = 13, NIG = 243, NCG = 229 SMD = −0.26
(95%-CI: −0.44–−0.08, p = 0.005)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.44–−0.09, p = 0.007) Q = 9.07, p = 0.697, I2 = 0% 69.7 (1.6) 68.1 (1.8)
−3.7 (1.0)% 69.4 (1.9) 70.0 (2.1)
1.3 (1.6)% 0.19
(95%-CI: −0.43–0.69, p = 0.565) males only
c = 14, NIG = 225, NCG = 214 SMD = −0.23
(95%-CI: −0.48–0.03, p = 0.081)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.48–0.03, p = 0.075) Q = 21.39, p = 0.066, I2 = 39.2% 69.4 (2.6) 67.3 (2.4)
−4.2 (0.9)% 69.1 (3.1) 68.1 (3.4)
−1.7 (1.0)% −0.21
(95%-CI: −0.67–0.36, p = 0.465) females and males
c = 16, NIG = 252, NCG = 246 SMD = −0.06
(95%-CI: −0.34–0.23, p = 0.704)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.40–0.29, p = 0.737) Q = 28.95, p = 0.011, I2 = 51.6% 67.6 (1.9) 67.4 (2.1)
−0.1 (1.0)% 67.6 (1.5) 68.0 (1.8)
0.5 (1.9)% 0.15
(95%-CI: −0.39–0.61, p = 0.597) Combined endurance and strength training all
c = 15, NIG = 322, NCG = 279 SMD = −0.18
(95%-CI: −0.35–−0.01, p = 0.041)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.37–0.01, p = 0.061) Q = 15.30, p = 0.358, I2 = 8.5% 69.1 (1.5) 66.3 (1.8)
−4.8 (0.8)% 69.2 (2.0) 68.1 (2.4)
−1.5 (0.8)% −0.35
(95%-CI: −0.73–0.19, p = 0.195) females only
c = 6, NIG = 121, NCG = 117 SMD = −0.38
(95%-CI: −0.72–−0.03, p = 0.031)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.83–0.08, p = 0.086) Q = 7.70, p = 0.174, I2 = 35.1% 70.5 (3.4) 65.7 (3.2)
−5.9 (1.5)% 71.6 (3.4) 70.6 (3.8)
−1.4 (1.5)% −0.37
(95%-CI: −0.91–0.63, p = 0.475) males only
c = 3, NIG = 55, NCG = 37 SMD = −0.10
(95%-CI: −0.52–0.32, p = 0.654)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.61–0.41, p = 0.503) Q = 0.61, p = 0.736, I2 = 0.0% 67.5 (6.0) 65.3 (4.7)
−2.7 (2.5)% 66.1 (7.5) 65.5 (6.9)
−1.4 (2.7)% females and males
c = 6, NIG = 146, NCG = 125 SMD = −0.06
(95%-CI: −0.29–0.19, p = 0.679)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.32–0.22, p = 0.653) Q = 3.76,
p = 0.584, I2 = 0% 68.4 (2.0) 67.3 (2.5)
−4.3 (1.3)% 68.4 (1.8) 67.4 (1.2)
−1.5% −0.18
(95%-CI: −0.86–0.74, p = 0.738) Additional school sports all
c = 5, NIG = 271, NCG = 216 SMD = −0.26
(95%-CI: −0.63–0.10, p = 0.154)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.92–0.39, p = 0.328) Q = 12.19,
p = 0.016,
I2 = 67.2% 84.8 (3.9) 80.4 (4.1)
−5.2 (2.3)% 84.3 (4.8) 81.6 (4.4)
−1.4 (1.0)% −0.09
(95%-CI: −0.90–0.86, p = 0.883) Unspecified sports activities all
c = 2, NIG = 1481, NCG = 1414 SMD = −0.13
(95%-CI: −0.52–0.26, p = 0.523) Q = 2.3, p = 0.130, I2 = 56.4% 75.8 (0.3) 75.1 (0.7)
−0.9 (1.0)% 75.4 (0.3) 76.3 (1.8)
0.7 (2.2)% Yoga all
c = 21, NIG = 597, NCG = 589 SMD = −0.37
(95%-CI: −0.58–−0.16, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.60–−0.14, p = 0.003) Q = 59.32, p < 0.001, I2 = 66.3% 76.1 (2.5) 70.4 (1.3)
−7.2 (1.6)% 76.7 (2.4) 75.9 (2.1)
−2.0 (0.7)% −0.87
(95%-CI: −0.94–−0.69, p < 0.001) females only
c = 7, NIG = 178, NCG = 181 SMD = −0.44
(95%-CI: −0.76–−0.13, p = 0.006)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.84–−0.04, p = 0.036) Q = 8.36, p = 0.138, I2 = 40.2% 76.9 (3.6) 71.4 (2.6)
−7.2 (2.3)% 77.1 (3.4) 76.2 (3.2)
−1.7 (1.6)% −0.89
(95%-CI: −0.99–−0.28, p = 0.018) males only
c = 4, NIG = 124, NCG = 117 SMD = −0.24
(95%-CI: −0.50–0.01, p = 0.063)
(95% HCI: −0.38–−0.10, p = 0.013) Q = 0.36, p = 0.949, I2 = 0% 73.2 (2.3) 69.6 (1.7)
−4.8 (2.1)% 74.4 (3.0) 74.5 (2.7)
0.7 (2.0)% females and males
c = 10, NIG = 295, NCG = 291 SMD = −0.41
(95%-CI: −0.77–−0.05, p = 0.028)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.86–0.04, p = 0.069) Q = 49.28, p < 0.001, I2 = 79.7% 76.8 (4.4) 70.2 (2.1)
−7.9 (2.7)% 77.3 (4.0) 76.3 (3.7)
−2.6 (1.0)% −0.87
(95%-CI: −0.97–−0.58, p < 0.001) Tai chi all
c = 5, NIG = 310, NCG = 317 SMD = −0.26
(95%-CI: −0.68–0.16, p = 0.228)
(95% HCI: −0.89–0.38, p = 0.327) Q = 24.03, p < 0.001, I2 = 83.4% 74.9 (3.2) 71.9 (2.1)
−4.7 (1.8)% 73.6 (3.5) 72.1 (4.2)
−1.1 (0.8)% −0.78
(95%-CI: −0.99–0.31, p = 0.115) Qigong all
c = 3, NIG = 138, NCG = 142 SMD = −0.23
(95%-CI: −0.47–0.00, p = 0.054) Q = 1.66, p = 0.437, I2 = 0% 84.6 (5.1) 81.6 (4.9)
−1.9 (1.5)% 78.1 (2.7) 81.2 (2.6)
3.0 (1.7)% All Asian sports all
c = 29, NIG = 1045, NCG = 1038 SMD = −0.34
(95%-CI: −0.50–−0.18, p < 0.001)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.52–−0.16, p < 0.001) Q = 87.81, p < 0.001, I2 = 68.1% 76.8 (1.8) 71.6 (1.0)
−6.2 (1.2)% 76.3 (1.7) 75.8 (1.6)
−1.3 (0.6)% −0.75
(95%-CI: −0.88–−0.54, p < 0.001) females and males
c = 17, NIG = 735, NCG = 732 SMD = −0.35
(95%-CI: −0.57–−0.12, p = 0.002)
(95%-HK-CI: −0.61–−0.08, p = 0.013) Q = 76.90, p < 0.001, I2 = 76.6% 77.5 (2.4) 72.1 (1.3)
−6.2 (1.6)% 76.5 (2.3) 76.0 (2.1)
−1.3 (0.7)% −0.74
(95%-CI: −0.89–−0.43, p < 0.001)

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